By air, it is 501 kilometres (311 miles) north of Athens, 613 kilometres (381 miles) southeast of Rome, 153 kilometres (95 miles) southwest of Skopje and 131 kilometres (81 miles) south of Podgorica.
Tirana was founded as a city in 1614, but the region that today corresponds to the city territory has been continuously inhabited since the Bronze Age.
When the Roman Empire divided into east and west, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control and included the construction of the Petrelë Castle, under the reign of Justinian I.
Until the 20th century, the city did not attain much significance, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as the country's capital, after the country's declaration of independence in 1912.
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Geographically, Tirana is located in the center of the country surrounded by mountains and hills, with Dajt on the east and a slight valley opening on the northwest, overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance.
Due to its location within the Tirana plain and the close proximity to the Adriatic Sea, the city is influenced by a mediterranean seasonal climate.
In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the settlement, the so-called ortodoksit.
They were Vlachs from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Park on the Artificial Lake.