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Dating english houses external evidence

He also argues that the figure on the map of a king in Mauretania named “Phillip” is intended to represent Philip II of France (1180-1223) and not Philip III (1270-85).

On stylistic grounds, he similarly places the map earlier rather than later in the 13The medieval world map is a documentary and also a narrative authority for the historian: it reflects the knowledge as well as the view of the world.

It is much more difficult to put literary manuscripts in a chronological order. Their script is careful, often monumentally executed, especially for liturgical and biblical books, and this makes them look uniform.

That is the reason, why the catalogues of manuscripts note only the presumed century, half of a century, or third of a century according to the character of letters.

That is the reason that the The map on the Rotulus of Vercelli is much smaller than its large sisters: it measures 84 cm in height and about 70 to 72 cm in latitude; the left and right borders of the parchment, that is the south and the north of the East-orientated map, are destroyed. Errera thought the toponymic testimony not to be older than the end of the 13 century.

Only the place of Jerusalem caused him any doubt because, since the time of the crusades, it was usually drawn as the center of the world on pictures and in texts; even the way of depicting the earthly paradise was unusual.

Capello compared the legends with the maps of of the Middle Ages in Western Europe is often of summary of knowledge drawn from different sources, concentrated in a picture offering places of interest from different historic periods.

As most of the historical documents are dated, there is no difficulty in finding records for comparison also for the different regions, if a single piece is lacking its date.The auxiliary historical scientist has to examine internal characteristics, and also the external, if the original document survived.And though the internal features are more fascinating, they are often objects of speculation, whilst external marks are of more consequence and confront the historian with a fragment.As he lost the plates of his book during the Second World War and he was to reconstruct it, the models of his copies were only in general identified.It might be supposed that he remembered the large copy, the only one which we have today, in the publication of Youssouf Kamal, as the original map is in a bad condition.Bagrow seems to have accepted the dating of Errera, as he mentions the map together with that of Stimulated by the Italian historian of cartography Roberto Almagiai, a geographer of the University of Turin, Carlo Felice Capello, studied the map and its history after 1951 and proposed in 1957 at the 17 Geographical Congress at Bani to attribute the map to the contemporaries of Cardinal Guala Bicchieri (d.1227).Born at Vercelli, Bicchieri became papal legate of Innocentius III and Honorius III.map, measuring 84 x 72 cm and obviously missing large portions of the map area, is the smallest of the three.It now resides in the Archivio Capitolare in Vercelli, Italy and has been dated by Carlo Capello to between 11. Capello believes that the map was carried to Vercelli by Cardinal Guala-Bicchieri on his return from England about 1218-19 as papal legate to Henry III.If paleographers wish to date the script of documents, there are, for instance, different ways to describe the design of Gothic letters.Especially in the later Middle Ages each generation has its own features.


  1. In terms of ‘external’ history, Middle English is framed at. One other factor marks out the bulk of our Middle English evidence from the. the dating is.

  2. Pollen is poorly preserved in the chalky soils found around Avebury, so the best evidence for the state of. their houses outside rather than. – English.

  3. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.

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