Major construction projects were undertaken, including upgrades to the Great Wall and construction of the Grand Canal which is still in use today.The canal connected northern and southern China together with the inland capitals of the dynasty.Most of the coins have a green or grey patina, some are rather crusty, and all could use cleaning (just soap and water and a bit of scrubbing or rubbing with your fingers helps.).Between cleaning and identifying, the coins these will provide hours of entertainment. You may purchase Holger Jorgensen's booklet "" at half price with the purchase of any cash coin lot.Some emperors used one reign title for their entire reign.Others would change their reign title every few years.The legend on the coin, K'ai Yuan Tung Pao translates as "precious currency of the K'ai Yuan era".The Tang Dynasty was a brilliant period in Chinese history. The K'ai Yuan coin continued to be issued for the next 300 years, until the collapse of the Dynasty in 907AD.
Buddhism was encouraged and Confucian rituals reintroduced.Many recent books use the modern Pinyin transcription.Thus the emperor who ruled China from 1022 to 1063AD is known as Jen Tsung in the Wade-Giles transcription and Ren Zong in the Pinyin transcription. His reign titles in the Wade-Giles transcription are T'ien-Sheng, Ming-tao, Ching-yu, Pao-yuan, K'ang-ting, Ch'ing-li, Huang-yu, Chih-ho, and Chia-yu.I will usually include both the Wade-Giles and Pinyin transcription. Many Chinese Northern Sung Dynasty (960-1127AD), a few Tang Dynasty (618-960AD), a few Ch'ing Dynasty (1644-1911), some Annamese cash coins, and some that are just too far gone to be identified.The hoard appears to have come from in a river in Vietnam.Adding the confusion is that there are multiple ways of translating the same name.Most traditional English language references used the Wade-Giles transcription.During much of the dynasty the coin was the only denomination struck.Because of the relatively low value of the coin and the high level of commerce a LOT of the coins were issued during that period.The heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties needed for the ambitious wars and construction projects led to widespread revolts and the dynasty was overthrown in 618AD.The K'ai Yuan coin was introduced by Chinese Emperor Kao Tsu, who founded the Tang Dyansty in 618AD.